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It can be difficult to know exactly when conception takes place, so the beginning of pregnancy is counted from the first day of the last menstrual period - which is about two weeks before a conception even takes place. After menstruation, the production of hormones in the pituitary gland increases. The hormone affects the ovaries and causes an egg to mature inside a bladder in the ovary. In the egg bladder, the hormone estrogen is formed. When the bladder ruptures, the egg loosens and the egg bladder is transformed into a so-called corpus luteum. The corpus luteum produces corpus luteum hormone, or progesterone, an important hormone that causes the lining of the uterus to grow and get ready to receive a fertilized egg.
In assisted fertilisation (IVF), the beginning of pregnancy is calculated from two weeks before the embryo is inserted into the uterus. The egg retrieval is counted as week 2+0 of the pregnancy.